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Accordingly, using paleontological and morphological evidence, Grimaldi and Engel (2005) estimated an 80-to 90-Ma corbiculate bee diversification.has been considered of early Cenozoic origin (Williams, 1985) based on early fossils described under the genus from the Paleocene and Oligocene, but these fossils have since been considered incorrectly or unreliably placed (Engel, 2001; Zeuner and Manning, 1976; Rasnitsyn and Michener, 1991).Lineage-through-time (LTT) plots and their associated statistics have been used to reveal evolutionary associations, such as the simultaneous radiation of ants with the angiosperms (Moreau et al., 2006) and the radiation of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae: ) during Paleocene/Eocene global warming (Mc Kenna and Farrell, 2006).Yet, these plots and statistics have yet to undergo empirical scrutiny regarding their sensitivity to the conditions of analyses, including variation resulting from phylogenetic uncertainty and to changes in the data.In combination, these data lead to a better understanding of the scenario in which the cold-adapted bumble bees evolved and radiated and provide an example of dispersal patterns among more recently evolving Holarctic and alpine groups.Divergence times, historical biogeography, and diversification statistics were estimated using the phylogeny and data set published in Cameron et al. This data set contains 218 taxa with unique names, including representatives of all 38 subgenera (Williams, 1998).

Although distributional patterns of extant bumble bees suggest possible scenarios for historical biogeography and fossil evidence provides approximate dates for these events, estimation of the ancestral biogeographic distributions of (e.g., Plowright and Stephen, 1973; Ito, 1985; Williams, 1985, 1994; Pedersen, 2002; Cameron and Williams, 2003; Kawakita et al., 2004; Hines et al., 2006).The primitively eusocial bumble bees are an abundant pollinating force in cool temperate and cold habitats.Accordingly, many high latitude and alpine flowers have a floral syndrome suited for the long tongues and learning-based foraging of bumble bees (Heinrich, 1979; Macior, 1982).These analyses reveal movements of concordant with geographic and climatic events of the late Cenozoic.The initial diversification of extant bumble bee lineages was estimated at around 25 to 40 Ma, near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary 34 Ma, a period of dramatic global cooling.

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